¿What is a DO?
A Protected Designation of Origin (DO or PDO) is a name, identifies a product originating from a specific place, whose quality and characteristics are due, principally or exclusively, to the geographical environment, with the natural and human factors inherent to it, and that all stages of production take place in the geographical area.
The figure of the Designation of Origin is the recognition system in Spain of products with differentiated quality.
The wine-making tradition of the DO Binissalem is reflected in the historical references.
Since the introduction of the cultivation of the vineyard, in the year 121 A.C., the vine has always been cultivated and wine has been produced in the region of the DO Binissalem. In the 1st century A.C., Plinio talks about Balearic wines, comparing them with the best of Italy. Even during the period of Muslim domination, despite Koranic prohibitions, the vine was cultivated and wine was made, as confirmed by the Liber maiolichinus, which narrates the invasion of Muslim Majorca by the Pisan troops, ‘that quenched thirst with the wine of the Saracens’. The Arab Beni Abet offered Jaime I, when he conquered the island in 1230, ‘grapes of excellent quality.’
After the conquest, the Cortes of Aragon first, and later of Castile, favoured the relative expansion of the cultivation of the vine, through a regime of plantation licenses, and wine orders by these courts were frequent.
We find references of the wines of the region in the work Voyage dans les Iles Baléares et Pithiuses (Trip to the Balearic Islands and Pitiusas) 1807, where it is cited: “Those of Binissalem and Sencelles are appreciated wines” by André Grasset de Saint-Sauveur; in the novel Clovis Dardentor 1896, by Jules Verne, where he quotes: “And the two young people had to empty some glasses of excellent wine from Binissalem, the fame of which extends beyond the archipelago of the Balearic Islands”, and in the work Die Balearen in Wort und Bild geschildert (The Balearics described by word and drawing) 1880, of the Archduke Luis Salvador of Austria, who dedicated a large part of the book to the surface of the vineyard and to the grape varieties of the region.
Between 1865 and 1890, when phylloxera affected France, the period of maximum splendour of this crop and the production of wine was lived, favouring a great economic development of some municipalities like Binissalem (1865-1890).
In 1891, almost 50 million litres were exported from Majorca, mainly to France and the Peninsula, but the phylloxera also arrived on the island this year, devastating the Majorcan vineyards, the main source of wealth disappearing and, as a consequence, some native varieties cultivated until then disappeared or remained residual.
The wine crisis was one of the causes that most affected emigration (1891-1895), especially in the municipalities where the crop was the majority.
The cultivation of the vine in the region has gone through moments of splendour and others of decline related to the pre-phylloxera, post-phylloxera, the Spanish Civil War and the tourist boom of the sixties, with a new resurgence at the end of the eighties. Since then, there has been a continuous growth of the sector.
In 1990, the DO Binissalem was recognised, although the first request for protection dates back to 1973, due to the need to protect the wines produced in the region from those that entered the Peninsula. Since then, DO Binissalem has opted for native grape varieties, which have allowed to produce unique wines, achieving high quality standards.
The geographical area of the Binissalem PDO is made up of the municipalities of Santa Maria, Consell, Binissalem, Santa Eugenia and Sencelles. With an extension of 154.75 square km, dominated by an ovoid plain, with a height between 70 and 140 m above sea level, arranged parallel to the Serra de Tramuntana and with an average slope of around 0.5% exposed to the southeast. This plain is surrounded by higher terrains, which in the highest parts reach 400 meters and are constituted by lithologies of calcareous nature. The soils in which the vineyards are located, mainly Calcisols and Luvisols, are of moderate fertility and depth, with a frank texture and with a high presence of thick elements. These soils are by definition a clear viticulturally vocation, since they modulate the behaviour of the vine, limiting its growth and production.
These soils have by definition a clear viticultural vocation as they modulate the behavior of the vineyard, limiting its growth and production.
The high content of coarse elements (gravel and stones) conditions the properties of these soils, which have a high apparent density and a limited water retention capacity. These apparent disadvantages caused by gravel and stones are offset by the benefits they bring to the soil making them very suitable for the cultivation of the vine. Horizon C is made up of an unconsolidated conglomerate of gravel and stones, which is a significant reserve of water available to the vineyards, easily explored by the roots.
The high content of coarse elements (gravel and stones), conditions of the properties of these soils, which have a high apparent density and a limited water retention capacity. These apparent disadvantages, caused by gravels and stones, are compensated by the benefits they bring to the soil, making them suitable for growing grapes.
The climatic conditions of the area are typically Mediterranean. With a dry and hot summer period and a mild and slightly rainy winter. The average annual rainfall is approximately 550 mm, distributed irregularly. Most of the rain is concentrated in the autumn months, being almost zero in summer. The average summer temperatures range between 29 and 32°C and in winter, the minimum temperatures range between 4 and 7°C. The average annual insolation is 2,750 hours.
The Serra de Tramuntana is a mountainous system of the island that reaches 1,400 meters in height and that, by the proximity to the geographical area, protects it from frost and cold winds from the north.
Both the local varieties Manto Negro, Callet, Moll…, and the rest of the authorised varieties show an excellent response to the edaphoclimatic conditions of the geographical area and to farming systems. The characteristics that are reflected in the wines are intimately bound to these conditions and to the human and natural factors of the zone.
Variety of medium sprouting and medium ripening cycle. It has a medium vigour with slightly upright shoots, large, elongated and compact bunches with spherical berries. It is sensitive to mildew and not very sensitive to powdery mildew and rot, due to the thickness of the skin and the type of cluster. In vintage, it presents a good level of maturation of the pulp and certain variability in coloration. Medium aromatic potential provides aromas of ripe fruit, pomegranate, carob and vegetable notes.
Variety of medium sprouting and medium ripening cycle. High production per stock due to high bunch weight. Large, compact clusters of large spherical berries. Little sensitive to diseases, although due to the compactness of the bunch and the large size of the berry can present problems of rottenness. In vintage, it has moderate sugar content, as well as a low phenolic concentration, mainly of the compounds responsible for pigmentation. Medium aromatic potential, providing fruit, vegetable and floral aromas.
Variety of late sprouting and long ripening cycle. Moderate production due, mainly, to an excess of flower bleed. Erect branches and few branches, large leaves, and clusters of medium size, short and of medium compactness. Spherical berries of medium size. Sensitive to powdery mildew, but resistant to rottenness. In vintage, it presents levels of sugars and low acids. Medium aromatic potential, provides aromas of fresh fruit, spicy and balsamic.
Sprouting variety and medium ripening cycle. Its productive capacity shows a correct balance with its vegetative expression. With large pentagonal leaves, it forms large, long and loose bunches with medium and spherical berries, very delicate and fine skin. Little sensitive to cryptogrammic diseases. In grape harvest, the must contains a medium level of sugars, even though the acidity is generally low. Medium aromatic potential, brings freshness and aromas of white fruit, apple, quince and aniseed notes.
Sprouting variety and medium ripening cycle. Presents a good vigour and a tight production per strain. With large leaves and pentagonal shape, large bunches, long and loose berries. Resistant to cryptogrammic diseases, but slightly sensitive to powdery mildew. In vintage it has a high content of sugars and good acidity of the must. Medium aromatic potential, provides aromas of stone fruit, tropical fruits and honey.
The main varieties in the wine production are the native grapes Manto Negro and Moll, as well as the various Moscatel varieties.
The red wines must contain at least 30% of the Manto Negro variety and a maxiumum of 30% of Gorgollassa; white wines must be made with at least 50% of Moll or Moscatel varieties, and rosé wines with a maximum of 30% of Gorgollassa grapes.
For rosé sparkling wines, any authorized red grape variety may be used, with a maximum of 30% of Gorgollassa grapes permitted, and for white sparkling wines with a minimum of 50% of Moll grapes and the varieties Parellada, Macabeo, Chardonnay or Giró Ros.
In relation to the sensory characteristics, the wines protected by the DO Binissalem are characterized by fruity aromas with Mediterranean character, accompanied by the nuances and varietal aromas of the native grapes and the terroir, that make them exceptional and unique.
Intensity of medium to medium-high color with aromas of ripe red fruits with vegetal backgrounds. On the palate warm, fleshy, with good structure, great balance and persistant long lasting finish.
Bright and clean. Wines with primary aromas of red fruits. The palate is balanced and persistent.
Its clean and bright appearance is characterized by the presence of fruity aromas, usually white fruits, such as pear and apple, and citrus notes. The wines elaborated with the Muscatel varieties are very aromatic and are characterized by the typical aromas of the variety. In general, the white wines are fresh and intense, well-balanced with great taste.
The wines that are subjected to aging processes in barrels will have their own aromatic complexity with nuances of wood and spicy aromas. The wines making use of the name Crianza, Reserva and Gran Reserva must comply with the aging periods and conditions established in the current regulations.
Sweet wines are also made. White wines, mainly with the Moscatel variety and red wines with the Manto Negro variety.
Bright and pure, and characterized by fruity and vegetal aromas. They are fresh, vivid, intense, with great finesse and persistence.
Bright and clean, with aromas of red fruits, fresh, of great finesse and persistence.
The Denomination of Origin Binissalem is small in size and production, bringing the added value of making wines with native grape varieties and with unique and differentiated characteristics.
|RED WINE GRAPES
|GRAPE VARIETIES||HECTARE||% vs RED
|ULL DE LLEBRE||17,98||4,17|
|FURTHER RED GRAPES||4,75||1,10|
|WHITE WINE GRAPES
|GRAPE VARIETIES||HECTARE||% vs WEISSE
|PRENSAL BLANC /MOLL||83,06||55,63|
|FURTHER WHITE GRAPES||1,22||0,82|
|YEAR||WHITE GRAPES (tons)||RED GRAPES (tons)||TOTAL (tons)
|YEAR||WHITE WINE (hectolitres)||ROSÉ WINE (hectolitres)||RED WINE (hectolitres)||TOTAL (hectolitres)
Annual commercialization 2021
BY TYPE OF WINE
|BY TYPE OF WINE||HECTOLITRES|
BY WINE CLASSIFICATION
|BY WINE CLASSIFICATION||HECTOLITRES
BY DESTINATION MARKET